Exposure Triangle How the Aperture, Shutter Speed and ISO work together to make the correct exposure.
Camera Modes Aperture Priority- put your camera on "A." It determines the depth of field. f/1.8 is the shallowest depth of field, whereas f/22 is the deepest depth of field. Shallow depth of field is where the foreground is in focus and the middle and background are out of focus. Best for photographing food, babies, close up of flowers, etc. Deep depth of field is where the foreground, middle and background are in focus. Best for photographing landscapes. When in doubt, f/8 is great! because it's a happy medium- the foreground and middle ground will be in focus.
Shutter Priority- put your camera on "S." It determines movement. For fast moving subjects, use 1/750 second or faster. To capture a "blur" or nighttime photography, use 1/30 second or slower. If you want to take photos at night, do about 1/3 second or slower. Note: if your shutter is slower then 1/60th of second, use a tripod!
Program Mode- put your camera on "P" The camera determines what the best exposure will be, based on what it sees in the scene.
ISO Determines the sensitivity to light The brighter the subject, the lower the ISO. Outside in the sun, 100- 400 IS0 (super bright, 100, cloudy, 400) Inside, 800- 2000 ISO, adjusting as you see fit. Please note that the higher the number, the more chance you have to have "noise"- large pixels that decrease the quality of the photo Again, use a tripod whenever you can- if you have a tripod, you can use a lower ISO since the shutter speed will be longer.
Compositional Terms Rule of thirds= most important subject is in the third quadrant of the photograph Leading line= a pathway carries your eyes through the photograph Simplicity= the subject is straightforward with a plain background Symmetry= the two subjects are parallel and echo each other Framing= your subject is framed by something like a window frame, gazebo, tree branches, etc Crop= your subject is close up and shows detail and texture
Vantage Points= Where you stand when you are taking the photograph. Be sure to vary your position when taking the shot! Worm's eye view- you are down on the ground Bird's eye view- you are high above the subject Side angle- you are to the side of the subject
Elements of Art The building blocks of design Color= warm colors/red, orange, yellow cool colors/ blue, green Primary colors: red, yellow, blue Monochromatic: shades of one color Line= the first thing you see is a line throughout the composition Value= the light and dark of a photograph Space= how something goes out in the distance, or positive and negative space Shape= organic- in nature inorganic- manmade (i.e. you would not see a rectangle in nature) Form= three dimensional Texture=surface detail of a subject, i.e. detail of fur
Principles of Art The glue that sticks the design together Unity= all elements work together, even unusual objects (i.e. the girl holding a monkey in a golden field) Proportion= how something looks in size compared to another, i.e. a small person next to a mountain Rhythm= repeated elements, like several sailboats in a row Harmony= everything meshes together, like a sunset on a lake Balance= symmetry- butterfly wings Emphasis= the first thing a person looks at Variety= something unusual in the photograph that you wouldn't see ordinarily